What is Android? An Overview

Android is an open-source mobile operating system created by Google.

Created by: Adeshola Bello /

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Otse Amorighoye

What is Android? An Overview

Android is an open-source mobile operating system created by Google. It powers a significant portion of the world's smartphones and tablets, making it one of the most influential technologies of our time. With its roots tracing back to 2003, Android has evolved into a versatile platform, accommodating a wide range of devices beyond just phones and tablets, such as smart TVs, wearables, and even cars. This article explores the fundamentals of Android, its benefits, reasons for its popularity, and the skills and qualifications needed to become an Android developer.

Understanding Android

History and Evolution

Android was initially developed by Android Inc., a company founded by Andy Rubin, Rich Miner, Nick Sears, and Chris White in 2003. Google acquired Android Inc. in 2005, and the first Android-powered device, the HTC Dream (also known as the T-Mobile G1), was released in 2008. Over the years, Android has undergone significant transformations, with numerous updates bringing new features, improved performance, and enhanced security. Each major version of Android is named after a dessert or sweet treat, a tradition that continued until Android 10, after which Google switched to numerical versioning.


Android's architecture is composed of several layers, each serving a distinct purpose:

  1. Linux Kernel: At the core of Android is the Linux kernel, which provides essential system services such as memory management, process management, and device drivers.

  2. Hardware Abstraction Layer (HAL): This layer allows Android to interface with the hardware components of a device. It provides standard interfaces that expose device hardware capabilities to the higher levels of the operating system.

  3. Android Runtime (ART): ART is the runtime environment in which Android applications run. It compiles bytecode into native instructions, improving the performance of apps.

  4. Native C/C++ Libraries: These libraries provide functionalities like graphics rendering, database management, and multimedia playback. Examples include OpenGL for graphics and SQLite for database management.

  5. Java API Framework: This framework provides a rich set of APIs that developers use to build Android applications. It includes components for user interface design, data storage, connectivity, and more.

  6. System Apps: Android comes with a set of pre-installed system apps, such as the Phone app, Contacts app, and Google Play Store, which provide core functionalities and services.

Key Features

Android's popularity can be attributed to its wide range of features, which include:

  1. Customizability: Android allows users to customize their devices extensively, from changing the home screen layout to installing custom ROMs.

  2. Multitasking: Android supports true multitasking, enabling users to run multiple apps simultaneously and switch between them effortlessly.

  3. Notifications: The notification system in Android is robust, providing timely updates and alerts for various apps and services.

  4. Widgets: Widgets are small applets that provide at-a-glance information and quick access to app functions directly from the home screen.

  5. Google Integration: Android devices are deeply integrated with Google services, offering seamless access to Google Search, Gmail, Google Maps, and more.

  6. Security: Android incorporates various security features, such as app permissions, encryption, and regular security updates, to protect user data and privacy.

Benefits of Android

1. Open Source Nature

Android is open-source, meaning its source code is freely available for anyone to use, modify, and distribute. This openness fosters innovation and allows manufacturers to create a wide variety of devices with different features and price points. Developers can also contribute to the platform, improving its functionality and security.

2. Large User Base

With billions of active devices worldwide, Android boasts a massive user base. This extensive reach makes it an attractive platform for developers, as it provides a large audience for their apps. Businesses can also leverage Android's popularity to reach a broader customer base.

3. Customizability and Flexibility

Android's flexibility allows users to tailor their devices to their preferences. Users can change the look and feel of their device, install third-party apps from various sources, and even create custom ROMs for a personalized experience. This level of customization is unparalleled in the mobile OS market.

4. Vast App Ecosystem

The Google Play Store offers millions of apps, covering a wide range of categories, from productivity tools to entertainment. This vast app ecosystem ensures that users can find apps for almost any need. Developers benefit from this ecosystem by having a platform to distribute their apps and generate revenue.

5. Hardware Diversity

Android powers devices from numerous manufacturers, resulting in a diverse range of hardware options. Consumers can choose from budget-friendly smartphones to high-end flagship devices, each offering different features and capabilities. This diversity caters to various needs and preferences.

6. Regular Updates and Improvements

Google regularly releases updates for Android, introducing new features, performance enhancements, and security patches. These updates ensure that the platform remains up-to-date with the latest technologies and trends, providing users with a continually improving experience.

Why Android?

1. Market Share

Android dominates the global smartphone market, with a significant share compared to other operating systems. This dominance translates to a larger potential audience for developers and businesses, making it a lucrative platform to invest in.

2. Developer-Friendly Environment

Android provides a robust development environment with tools like Android Studio, a powerful Integrated Development Environment (IDE). Android Studio offers features such as code editing, debugging, and performance analysis, making it easier for developers to create high-quality apps. Additionally, the extensive documentation and active developer community provide valuable resources and support.

3. Monetization Opportunities

Android offers various monetization options for developers, including in-app purchases, subscriptions, and ad revenue. The Google Play Store's global reach allows developers to generate income from users worldwide. Moreover, the open nature of Android enables developers to distribute their apps through alternative app stores and direct downloads.

4. Integration with Google Services

Android's seamless integration with Google services enhances the user experience. Features like Google Assistant, Google Photos, and Google Drive are tightly integrated into the OS, providing added convenience and functionality. For developers, this integration allows for easy incorporation of Google APIs and services into their apps.

5. Support for Emerging Technologies

Android is at the forefront of adopting and supporting emerging technologies. From augmented reality (AR) and virtual reality (VR) to machine learning and the Internet of Things (IoT), Android provides the necessary tools and frameworks for developers to create innovative apps and experiences.

**6. Global Reach

Android's availability in multiple languages and regions ensures a global reach. This accessibility allows developers to create apps that cater to diverse audiences, expanding their user base and potential revenue streams. Businesses can also leverage Android's global presence to enter new markets and connect with international customers.

Who are Android Developers?

1. Roles and Responsibilities

Android developers are professionals who specialize in creating applications for devices running the Android operating system. Their roles and responsibilities include:

  • Designing and Developing Apps: Android developers design and build mobile applications that meet user needs and business requirements. They write code, create user interfaces, and implement functionalities using programming languages like Java and Kotlin.

  • Testing and Debugging: Developers conduct thorough testing to identify and fix bugs and ensure app stability. They use tools like Android Emulator and real devices to test app performance across different screen sizes and hardware configurations.

  • Maintaining and Updating Apps: After deployment, developers maintain and update apps to fix issues, introduce new features, and ensure compatibility with the latest Android versions. They also monitor app performance and user feedback to make necessary improvements.

  • Collaborating with Teams: Android developers often work in teams, collaborating with designers, product managers, and other developers. Effective communication and teamwork are essential to ensure the successful development and deployment of apps.

2. Skills and Qualifications

To become an Android developer, one must possess a combination of technical skills, knowledge, and personal attributes:

  • Programming Languages: Proficiency in Java and Kotlin is crucial for Android development. Java was the primary language for Android development for many years, while Kotlin, introduced in 2017, is now the preferred language due to its modern features and improved safety.

  • Android SDK: Knowledge of the Android Software Development Kit (SDK) is essential. The SDK provides tools, libraries, and documentation needed to develop Android apps.

  • Android Studio: Familiarity with Android Studio, the official IDE for Android development, is important. Android Studio offers features like code editing, debugging, and performance analysis, streamlining the development process.

  • User Interface Design: Understanding principles of user interface (UI) and user experience (UX) design is vital. Developers should know how to create intuitive and visually appealing interfaces that enhance the user experience.

  • APIs and Libraries: Experience with various APIs and libraries is beneficial. Commonly used APIs include Firebase for backend services, Retrofit for network requests, and Room for local database management.

  • Version Control: Proficiency in version control systems like Git is essential for collaboration and code management. Developers should know how to use Git for tracking changes, merging code, and collaborating with team members.

  • Problem-Solving Skills: Strong problem-solving skills are crucial for debugging and resolving issues that arise during development. Developers should be able to think critically and find effective solutions.

  • Communication Skills: Effective communication skills are important for collaborating with team members and understanding user requirements. Developers should be able to convey technical information clearly and work well in a team environment.

  • Continuous Learning: The tech industry is constantly evolving, and Android developers must stay updated with the latest trends, tools, and technologies. A commitment to continuous learning and professional development is essential.

3. Educational Background and Certifications

While formal education is not always a strict requirement, most Android developers have a background in computer science, software engineering, or a related field. A bachelor's degree in computer science or a similar discipline provides a solid foundation in programming, algorithms, and software development principles.

In addition to formal education, certifications can enhance a developer's credentials and demonstrate their expertise. Some valuable certifications for Android developers include:

  • Google Associate Android Developer Certification: This certification validates the fundamental skills required to develop Android apps. It covers topics like UI design, app functionality, and debugging.

  • Udacity Android Developer Nanodegree: Offered in collaboration with Google, this nanodegree program provides comprehensive training in Android development, covering essential topics and practical projects.

  • Coursera Android App Development Specialization: This specialization, offered by the University of Maryland, covers the basics of Android development, including UI design, data storage, and networking.


Android has revolutionized the mobile technology landscape, providing a versatile and customizable platform for users and developers alike. Its open-source nature, vast app ecosystem, and integration with Google services have contributed to its widespread adoption and success. Android developers play a crucial role in creating innovative and user-friendly applications, leveraging their technical skills, creativity, and problem-solving abilities. With a promising career outlook and numerous opportunities for growth, Android development continues to attract aspiring developers and technology enthusiasts worldwide.